Proposal (Part 1) 


The process of change/developments in the transport system, as in any system, is complex. The transportation system as a whole has its effects on the global as well as regional economy and is a vital part of the society. But on the other hand transport system also contributes adversely to the environment and loss of lives, injuries and monetary damage due to accidents and congestion.

The development of Intelligent Transportation System [ITS], which is an integrated technological development of traffic engineering, software, hardware and communication technologies can be applied to the transportation system to improve the safety and efficiency of the traffic flow. ITS, which consists of Advanced Driver Assistance system [ADAS], Advanced Traveller Information Service [ATIS], Automated Highway System [AHS], etc. gives us tools, and potential for future tools, which could make our transportation system safer and achieve our policy goals. ITS will provide the path to minimize the risk of accidents and injuries [1]. ITS has in-vehicle functions and/or in the infrastructure, like sensors, warning systems, speed controllers, GPS, beacons, etc., which would help to deal with the deficiencies of the transportation systems.

About Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA)
Intelligent Speed Adaptation [in-vehicle function that controls the speed of the vehicle on road] is one of the most promising elements of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems [ADAS] in terms of its positive effect on the safety by reduction of accidents due to high speed on road. The most basic causes of accidents are drivers’ errors in perception, judgment, and manoeuvring. The factor of speed is related to all these errors [4].  The basic idea of implementing ISA technology is to reduce the speed of the vehicles on the road which is one of the major reasons for accidents.

The use of this started with the use of beacons, that were installed on the road and which would send a signal to the vehicle about the speed limit on that particular road. There are three major ISA types.
 First is the open ISA system, which is an Advisory System. Each time the vehicle exceeds or violates the speed limit it gives a signal (auditory or visual) to the driver. The driver here is free to choose whether or not to react to the signal, as there is no link between the signal and the vehicle controls.  
 Second, the semi-open system, which is a Voluntary System i.e. the system is linked to the vehicle controls to restrict the speed but the driver are still able to succeed the speed limit but it cost more effort. Here The Active Gas Pedal is used, which provides a counter-force whenever the driver tries to press it beyond a pre-set speed limit. 
 The third is the closed system, which is a Mandatory/Compulsory System i.e. it override the driver as soon as the speed limit is exceeded. The vehicle cannot drive faster than the speed limit. Here there is intervention with the engine controls and overriding the speed is not possible.
Each of the above three intervention types of ISA could have different speed limit types - fixed, variable or dynamic:

Fixed: Vehicle is informed of posted speed limits.

Variable: Vehicle is additionally informed of the locations in the networks, where lower speed limit is implemented.

Dynamic: Additional lower speed are implemented because of networks, or weather conditions like fog or slippery road or some incidents [5]. 
So there could be nine types of ISA that could be implemented.


Problem of Speeding
Many studies and researches reveal the fact that majority of the road accidents are due to excess and inappropriate speed of the vehicle on road and increase in speed increases the chance of accidents. Speeding of the vehicle leads to the loss of control and which finally results into the loss of life and property. Along with the loss of life it costs thousands in emergency services, repair bills and increase insurance premium and many other such things.

In Netherlands year 2001 there were 1,082 deaths and 19,000 or more serious injuries (source - CBS- Netherlands, Statistical yearbook 2004). The accidents costs are estimated around 7 billion US$ or 13.5 million US $ per day. A reduction in the number of road accidents will therefore also yield an economic return. It has been calculated that achieving the policy goal will reduce the cost to society by an amount in the order of 1.2 billion US $ a year in 2010 and the years thereafter; a rate of return of 7 per cent per year, which justifies the investment in road safety [23]. Also in Europe over 42,500 people (800 every week) are killed on EU-roads and more than 3.5 million persons are injured in road traffic accidents each year. The estimated cost of all these crashes within the EU is over 160 billion Euros.  It appears from the figures that speed contributes to one third of the fatal and serious crashes. Two in three drivers exceed the speed limit in urban areas, and one in two drivers exceed the limit on single lane rural roads. Better speed management, which can reduce average speeds by 5 km/hour, could save as many as 9000 lives annually in EU [23]. In Netherlands current actions taken are discussed below to combat with the problem of speed with respect to the speed targets for 2000 in the 3rd version of the long-term safety plan have been accentuated in the Evaluation Driving Speeds Report (V&W / MoT, 1993):
•    The average speed must be 5-10% lower than in 1985.
•    The V90 (which 90% of motor vehicles drive) must be the same as the speed limit (in other words: a maximum of 10% above the limit).

Current Actions to reduce speed on road [39]
The policy actions that are implemented by the ministry to reduce the speed on the roads are:
•    The road categorisation is done with different speed limits for different areas like 15km/h and 30km/h road for the residential area, 50km/h and 70 km/h for urban roads, 100km/h for rural roads and 120km/h for motorways. also the road design is according to the function of the road
•    The speed limit is designed for each road.
•    Introduction to black boxes i.e. for the location which are accident prone.
•    Change in road design for example to replace the junctions with roundabouts.
•    Improve the driving education regarding the traffic rules and also physical training for different driving conditions.
•    Optical lane narrowing.
•    Drivers are posted with local speed limit by means of fixed or dynamic warning signs.
•    Technical measures in/on the vehicle like alcohol lock or fatigue detector, etc
•    Also in vehicle provision of airbags and seat belts.
•    Law enforcements regarding the speed limits by the use of speed cameras and police surveillance.
•    Also surveillance projects on different roads and identified risky locations on road network were initiated.

Achieving these speed targets was expected to lead to 150 less road deaths and 2000 less injured victims. The V90 target has not been achieved on any road category with the current actions implemented. Without drastic measures, it is not expected to be achieved [39].

Using Intelligent Speed Adaptation would reduce the average speed and speed distribution of vehicles on the road. The experiments and research on ISA have been going in many countries of Europe like Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, UK, France, etc. Tests results based on simulation study and small pilot experiments in UK Leeds show that ISA with 100% penetration level would decrease the number of fatal accidents by 24%, 32% and 59% for Advisory, Voluntary and Mandatory ISA respectively. It also has other positive effects on the transport system in terms of safety on road, level of emission, fuel consumption and traffic flow. Also tests in Netherlands confirm that implementing ISA as a policy option would help to attain the road safety goals set by the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management.






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