Introduction (Part 1) 


Description of Azag Strip Case

The Azag Strip is a country situated in the western part of the Middle East. Actually, It’s highly known that it has an increasing population with a limited land area, which has made of it, one of the most densely populated areas in the world. After its 35 years of existence, the country is facing a number of social problems. One of them is the management and development of the water supply system. The available budget for effectively managing the water sector is limited. Today the government of the country is interested in identifying possible solutions that will help it to bear successfully this problem in order to increase the living conditions of their citizens.

The complex situation faced by the government of Azag Strip is mainly caused by the heavily increase in the population, which as a consequence increased the demand for potable water. Additionally, a demand of water is requested for agriculture and industrial sector, increasing the total demand of water, while the water supply has hardly changed as a consequence of scarce resources.

Government’s agenda is finding the strategies that would permit them to have control over the water resources and water demand. For achieving its goal, they must have a complete understanding of actually functioning of water system, the resources available for future (considering their water quality), and the quantity demanded in the coming years for each sector. 

Problem Definition

Azag Strip highly increased population has affected negatively the use of land and water supply. Firstly, the groundwater has been the most important source since beginning and today it has diminished and also its level has gone down because of which it has become more difficult to extract water from the existing wells. In the case of the land supply, the increasing demand of housing and business areas has diminished the available area for agriculture and caused a dynamic change of irrigated and non irrigated area in last years.

Water, which is one of the most basic and essential requirements for the development of a civilization, is scarce in Azag Strip. Citizens are also facing the severe problem of quality of the water supplied for their daily use. Because the ground water is replenished by rainwater and other return flow, these last ones (water which returns after domestic use by cesspits and from irrigated water already used) has caused an increase of the nitrate concentration, which after the 50 mg/l of water will increase the death rate of the population.

The decrease on the quantity and the quality of the water in the Azag Strip is been described in the following points:
 

  • The increase of the population has amplified the demand of water for domestic, agriculture and business use, while the replenishment of the groundwater occurs slowly over time.
  • There is a decrease in the amount of ground water from 1600 millions to 1200 millions of cubic meters in 24 years. Also the ground water table has also changed from 10 mts. to 35 mts.
  • As the Groundwater level decreases, some wells are running dry and also pumping the ground water is becoming expensive. Drilling and deepening of wells are bound by strict regulations. Only after the level reaches 30 mts., the problem appears and when it reaches 70 mts. the annual precipitation (considering evaporation) could be extracted for covering the demand.
  • There is a delay of replenished water merging into the groundwater. It also affect the amount of nitrates that is coming into the groundwater, affecting its quality.
  • The concentration of nitrate on water pump after its reaches the 50mg/l of water will increase the death rate of the population.


Due to this problems and the scarce economic resources, the government of Azag strip is highly concerned on the future of the country. The water quantity and quality, the increase population, the decrease of available land for agriculture, the difficulties of extracting water, has affected the economic growth of the country. Additionally, the country must pay for water imported from abroad to meet the demand that the groundwater resources can’t meet.
 
The opportunities of Azag Strip are highly dependent on the economy of the country, Some experts have identified some solutions, which are closely related with new technology, which also demand of money. At the end, the future of this country seems to be uncertain and very complex to identify.
 

 

 

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