Tactics - Generation & Screening 


Tactics is a policy option  and its implementation will lead to achievement of main objective. Thus a tactic influences one or more outcomes of interests if implemented. Since tactics are related to the objectives, the tactics were generated from means end diagrams for all the three sub onjectives: improve transportation efficiency, improve transportation safety and reducing environmental pollution and transportation cost. The sample of means end diagram for criterion of reducing air and noise pollution is shown below.

Means End diagram for reducing environmental pollution

For the “Transportation problem between Rotterdam and The Hague” the study categorizes the tactics according the outcomes of interests that the problem owner -Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and Water Management is looking to attain.

The problem owner has four outcomes of interests- reduce congestion in A13 highway, reduce accidents, reduce local pollution and decrease travel time between the two cities . As example the list below shows the tactics for the local pollution.

  • Introduce pollution tax on each car owned per year
  • Increase numbers of car testing per year
  • Build noise barriers near the residential areas on the highway
  • Regulate on owning of car depending on manufacturing date (Number of year the car is allowed to be on the road)
  • Use fuel gas technology
  • Hybrid vehicles- run on electricity also
  • Increase the green belts area near the highway.


Relation of the tactics or instruments to the outcome of interests
The pollution here is measured in volumes, for each of NOx, SO2, COx and CnHm that will be due to the emission of gases from fuel burnt. It also includes the noise (in dB) due to driving across the highway.

The following are the tactics designed to reduce the pollution: -

  • Introduce pollution tax on each car owned per year: The car will be charged for the pollution it contributes due to driving. This will be fixed depending on the mass of the car and will be charged per year. Since the driving will become expensive there will reduced number of unnecessary owning of cars. This will reduce the number of car driving and hence reduce the volumes of the gases liberated. Thus pollution will be reduced.
  • Increase number of car testing per year: This will ensure that the car on the road meet the standard set for the volume of gases that is allowed to liberated due to fuel combustion. Hence will reduce the pollution due to cars that do not meet the standards.
  • Build noise barrier near the residential area on the highway: This will absorb the noise from the cars using the A13 highway. Thus the noise pollution will be reduced.
  • Regulate on owning of car dependent on manufacturing date: The efficient of cars on the issue of fuel depends on how long the car has been on the road. Restricting the number years the car has to be on the road will imply that the use of fuel will be efficient and thus reduce the emission of gases due to the fuel combustion. Hence pollution will be reduced.
  • Use fuel cell technology: This means the cars will have to use hydrogen technology as means of fuel. Hence there will be emission of the mentioned gases. Hence the pollution will be reduced.
  • Hybrid vehicles – run on electricity also: Introduce cars that will be using electricity. This implies there will be no gases emission. Hence the pollution will be reduced.
  • Increase the green belts area near the highway: This means trees will be planted along the A13 highway. This will absorb the CO2 emitted from the cars. Hence reduce pollution.
  • Invest more on the R&D department and technological development: Development of new technology needs research. The problem owner will need to establish research centers to find on how they can reduce the pollution due to driving.

The effect of different tactics for other outcomes of interest can be studied in a similar way and know how the instruments affect the system variable and that in turn affects the outcome of interests.


Numbers of alternatives or tactics are developed to reach the final goal by brainstorming and meetings. It is not possible to implement all the tactics that are listed mostly due to technical or budgetary restrictions. Hence the tactics have to be screened before they are evaluated by developing model or implemented. Different methods are used for screening the alternatives or the tactics, but before that certain criteria have to be established. This would help to study the impact of the tactic on the given criteria and also the amount of extent, which would help in screening process of the tactics. Two methods can be applied namely cut off and cream off methods. The criteria for screening the tactics for the transportation problem of A13 highway connecting Rotterdam and The Hague are given below:

General Criteria

  • Political acceptance – The tactic that is selected for the evaluation or for implementation has to be acceptable to all the actors and all the stakeholders that are involved in process of problem solving. It should be also acceptable to the decision makers who must ultimately deicide on the adoption of the alternative. If the alternative is not acceptable it might be left out.
  • Dominance – Arising of a situation where the two alternatives have the same purpose and same benefit, then one of the alternatives has to be dropped out.
  • Feasible – If the implementation of the alternative has some technical, economical or administrative complications or organizational constraints, then its better not to implement the tactic rather than trying to solve the problem related to that tactic as it would decrease the efficiency of the process.
  • Cost–Benefit Analysis – While deciding on the tactic for implementation its benefits after the implementation should be compared with the input costs in the tactic. If the benefits are less then the input costs then the tactic should be discarded.

Specific Criteria

  • Congestion
  • Local Pollution
  • Safety/accidents
  • Travel time
  • Economic development: This criterion would be used that if the tactic that has better impact on the economic development. Rise in GDP/GNP

Developing Strategies

A strategy is a package that consists of more than one tactic. Thus it combines tactics together and when implemented would influence the outcomes of interests. Because strategies also depend on various combinationsof different tactics, system model will be developed which would unable us to experiment with different combinations of tactics to develop various strategies.






 | Close