Problem Analysis 


The problem statement  indicates that the problem involves many stakeholders. These stakeholders have to be considered in developing the problem policy since the solution of the problem will touch the interests of these stakeholders. If they will not be included might create resistance in the process. The following are the stakeholders that the study considered to be of important to the problem and their interests.

Problem owner: Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and Water Management: The ministry represents the interests of the government on the problem. The government’s interests are good and accessible A13 highway, reduction in pollution, minimize number of accidents and positive economic growth. The Ministry of Transport, Public Works, and Water Management possess every required means to influence the problem and as well the solution. The ministry possesses political, financial and knowledge power on the problem. The ministry is the strong and active problem owner.

Stakeholders and Actors

Citizens and road users: They are interested in fast and accessible driving A13 highway, no pollution, and no accidents. These actors do not have strong power in the policymaking process. Thus they are simply stakeholders but not actors. However they possess the power of public opinion. Other actors will have to consider them to keep the relation smooth. They are also the final users.
Municipalities (The Hague, Delft, Rotterdam, Schiedam): They are interested in safe and accessible A13, minimal pollution and growing economy. They represent the interest of the central government at the municipality level. They possess power equivalent to the central government but at municipality level. So they are strong actors too.
Industries and large business companies (e.g. Rotterdam harbour): They are interested in safe and accessible A13, easier and fast transportation of their goods, timely arriving of their workers. They possess the financial power and influence the last decision of the policy making process such as through not paying tax that may be needed by the government to implement the solution. They also possess important actor position in the problem.
Environmental agents: They are interested in no pollution and reduced accident occurrences. They only possess knowledge as their means. They don’t have power to influence the decision and thus they are simply stakeholders.  However they can influence the policy making process through organizing public opinions.
International organizations in The Hague and European Union countries: These include embassies, and United Nations international court. They are interested in safe and fast means of transportation. Because The Hague is considered to be administration city many international meetings and issues are handled there. If the problem will not focus on their interests they might move such business to other countries. This implies loss of market in business such as hotels and tourists.


From the interests of the stakeholders as explained  above the study considered the objectives of the problem owner and other stakeholders. As the problem is mainly focused on transportation the main objective as from the study was pointed to be to improve transportation quality (High quality transportation). Further the study pointed out that the main objective is translated to three sub-objectives namely improve transportation efficiency, increase transportation safety and reduce transportation cost. The study pointed more that the possible intermediate objectives are reduce travel time, reduce congestion, create new mode of transportation, reduce accidents, and reduce air & noise pollution.

Outcomes of Interests and their Proxies

Congestion: Defines the status of the A13 highway. The congestion will indicate how efficiently and easily to access the highway. The congestion will be measured in terms of the cars per kilometer distance. The problem owner, actors and all stakeholders will be interested to see how the means applied will change the congestion on the A13 highway.
Local pollution: Pollution here refers to the emission of burnt exhausted gases from the cars or tracks on the A13 highway. The problem owner, actors and all stakeholders will be interested to see how the means applied will affect the amount of gases emission by cars as they travel between the cities in a given period of time. The gases that are considered here are Nitrogen Monoxide, Nitrogen dioxide, Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrocarbons. The local pollution will be measured in terms of volume of gases per car mass per fuel liter burnt and dB for noise pollution.
Accidents: Refers to the number of accidents happening on the A13 highway in a given period of time.  As some alternatives or policies will be applied to solve the problem, problem owner, actors and stakeholders will be looking to see how those means applied will influence the accidents that had been happening throughout the A13 highway. The proxy for this will be the number of accidents on A13 or fatalities occurred due to A13 highway accidents per year.
Travel time: Refers to the time that a person will take to travel between the two cities with either transport (public or private). How fast and easy to travel between the two cities will be an interested outcome on use of alternatives or policies to the problem. The proxy for this outcome of interest is the number of hours that will be used to travel between the two cities.

As it is the fact real world problems are too large and they are linked to many other problems. Thus solving a problem needs to define the boundary to your solution or study focused. The “transportation problem between the two cities” (The Hague and Rotterdam) has three elements (subsystems). The elements here are named as social subsystem, social & economic subsystem and road subsystem. Figure below presents general system diagram showing external factors, means/instruments, subsystems, outcomes of interests and their relations and the boundary of the system.

                                                                       System diagram

The external factors are variables that cannot be controlled by the system, so they are placed outside the system boundary in figure 2.1. The external factors are Economic development of Netherlands, Population, weather, price of car and price of fuel, and technological advancement, which cannot be controlled by the system.
The instruments/policy alternatives are the triggers that can be used to tune the system to attain our outcomes of interest. They are also not the part of system but are implemented for desired outcomes of interest.
The outcomes of interest are what are to be achieved. The causal relation of external variables to the subsystem, relation how instruments affect the system variable, relation between the internal variables of different subsystems and how outcomes of interest are related to system variables (subsystem) is done in System model development.






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